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Published: Jun 22, 2022 License: MIT Imports: 22 Imported by: 0



A clone and refresh of

Improved handling of comments:

  • support block comments
  • include comments inside stored procedure and function declarations

Goose is a database migration tool. Manage your database schema by creating incremental SQL changes or Go functions.

Goose supports embedding SQL migrations, which means you'll need go1.16 and up. If using go1.15 or lower, then pin v3.0.1.

Goals of this fork is a fork of with the following changes:

  • No config files
  • Default goose binary can migrate SQL files only
  • Go migrations:
    • We don't go build Go migrations functions on-the-fly from within the goose binary
    • Instead, we let you create your own custom goose binary, register your Go migration functions explicitly and run complex migrations with your own *sql.DB connection
    • Go migration functions let you run your code within an SQL transaction, if you use the *sql.Tx argument
  • The goose pkg is decoupled from the binary:
    • goose pkg doesn't register any SQL drivers anymore, thus no driver panic() conflict within your codebase!
    • goose pkg doesn't have any vendor dependencies anymore
  • We use timestamped migrations by default but recommend a hybrid approach of using timestamps in the development process and sequential versions in production.
  • Supports missing (out-of-order) migrations with the -allow-missing flag, or if using as a library supply the functional option goose.WithAllowMissing() to Up, UpTo or UpByOne.
  • Supports applying ad-hoc migrations without tracking them in the schema table. Useful for seeding a database after migrations have been applied. Use -no-versioning flag or the functional option goose.WithNoVersioning().


$ go install

This will install the goose binary to your $GOPATH/bin directory.

For a lite version of the binary without DB connection dependent commands, use the exclusive build tags:

$ go build -tags='no_postgres no_mysql no_sqlite3' -o goose ./cmd/goose

For macOS users goose is available as a Homebrew Formulae:

$ brew install goose

See the docs for more installation instructions.




    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db status
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db create init sql
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db create add_some_column sql
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db create fetch_user_data go
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db up

    goose postgres "user=postgres password=postgres dbname=postgres sslmode=disable" status
    goose mysql "user:password@/dbname?parseTime=true" status
    goose redshift "postgres://" status
    goose tidb "user:password@/dbname?parseTime=true" status
    goose mssql "sqlserver://user:password@dbname:1433?database=master" status


    	applies missing (out-of-order) migrations
  -certfile string
    	file path to root CA's certificates in pem format (only support on mysql)
  -dir string
    	directory with migration files (default ".")
  -h	print help
    	apply migration commands with no versioning, in file order, from directory pointed to
  -s	use sequential numbering for new migrations
  -ssl-cert string
    	file path to SSL certificates in pem format (only support on mysql)
  -ssl-key string
    	file path to SSL key in pem format (only support on mysql)
  -table string
    	migrations table name (default "goose_db_version")
  -v	enable verbose mode
    	print version

    up                   Migrate the DB to the most recent version available
    up-by-one            Migrate the DB up by 1
    up-to VERSION        Migrate the DB to a specific VERSION
    down                 Roll back the version by 1
    down-to VERSION      Roll back to a specific VERSION
    redo                 Re-run the latest migration
    reset                Roll back all migrations
    status               Dump the migration status for the current DB
    version              Print the current version of the database
    create NAME [sql|go] Creates new migration file with the current timestamp
    fix                  Apply sequential ordering to migrations


Create a new SQL migration.

$ goose create add_some_column sql
$ Created new file: 20170506082420_add_some_column.sql

Edit the newly created file to define the behavior of your migration.

You can also create a Go migration, if you then invoke it with your own goose binary:

    $ goose create fetch_user_data go
    $ Created new file: 20170506082421_fetch_user_data.go


Apply all available migrations.

    $ goose up
    $ OK    001_basics.sql
    $ OK    002_next.sql
    $ OK    003_and_again.go


Migrate up to a specific version.

    $ goose up-to 20170506082420
    $ OK    20170506082420_create_table.sql


Migrate up a single migration from the current version

    $ goose up-by-one
    $ OK    20170614145246_change_type.sql


Roll back a single migration from the current version.

    $ goose down
    $ OK    003_and_again.go


Roll back migrations to a specific version.

    $ goose down-to 20170506082527
    $ OK    20170506082527_alter_column.sql


Roll back the most recently applied migration, then run it again.

    $ goose redo
    $ OK    003_and_again.go
    $ OK    003_and_again.go


Print the status of all migrations:

    $ goose status
    $   Applied At                  Migration
    $   =======================================
    $   Sun Jan  6 11:25:03 2013 -- 001_basics.sql
    $   Sun Jan  6 11:25:03 2013 -- 002_next.sql
    $   Pending                  -- 003_and_again.go

Note: for MySQL parseTime flag must be enabled.

Note: for MySQL multiStatements must be enabled. This is required when writing multiple queries separated by ';' characters in a single sql file.


Print the current version of the database:

    $ goose version
    $ goose: version 002


goose supports migrations written in SQL or in Go.

SQL Migrations

A sample SQL migration looks like:

-- +goose Up
    id int NOT NULL,
    title text,
    body text,

-- +goose Down

Notice the annotations in the comments. Any statements following -- +goose Up will be executed as part of a forward migration, and any statements following -- +goose Down will be executed as part of a rollback.

By default, all migrations are run within a transaction. Some statements like CREATE DATABASE, however, cannot be run within a transaction. You may optionally add -- +goose NO TRANSACTION to the top of your migration file in order to skip transactions within that specific migration file. Both Up and Down migrations within this file will be run without transactions.

By default, SQL statements are delimited by semicolons - in fact, query statements must end with a semicolon to be properly recognized by goose.

More complex statements (PL/pgSQL) that have semicolons within them must be annotated with -- +goose StatementBegin and -- +goose StatementEnd to be properly recognized. For example:

-- +goose Up
-- +goose StatementBegin
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION histories_partition_creation( DATE, DATE )
returns void AS $$
  create_query text;
  FOR create_query IN SELECT
      'CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS histories_'
      || TO_CHAR( d, 'YYYY_MM' )
      || ' ( CHECK( created_at >= timestamp '''
      || TO_CHAR( d, 'YYYY-MM-DD 00:00:00' )
      || ''' AND created_at < timestamp '''
      || TO_CHAR( d + INTERVAL '1 month', 'YYYY-MM-DD 00:00:00' )
      || ''' ) ) inherits ( histories );'
    FROM generate_series( $1, $2, '1 month' ) AS d
    EXECUTE create_query;
END;         -- FUNCTION END
language plpgsql;
-- +goose StatementEnd

Embedded sql migrations

Go 1.16 introduced new feature: compile-time embedding files into binary and corresponding filesystem abstraction.

This feature can be used only for applying existing migrations. Modifying operations such as fix and create will continue to operate on OS filesystem even if using embedded files. This is expected behaviour because io/fs interfaces allows read-only access.

Make sure to configure the correct SQL dialect, see dialect.go for supported SQL dialects.

Example usage, assuming that SQL migrations are placed in the migrations directory:

package main

import (


//go:embed migrations/*.sql
var embedMigrations embed.FS

func main() {
    var db *sql.DB
    // setup database


    if err := goose.SetDialect("postgres"); err != nil {

    if err := goose.Up(db, "migrations"); err != nil {

    // run app

Note that we pass "migrations" as directory argument in Up because embedding saves directory structure.

Go Migrations

  1. Create your own goose binary, see example
  2. Import
  3. Register your migration functions
  4. Run goose command, ie. goose.Up(db *sql.DB, dir string)

A sample Go migration 00002_users_add_email.go file looks like:

package migrations

import (


func init() {
	goose.AddMigration(Up, Down)

func Up(tx *sql.Tx) error {
	_, err := tx.Exec("UPDATE users SET username='admin' WHERE username='root';")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	return nil

func Down(tx *sql.Tx) error {
	_, err := tx.Exec("UPDATE users SET username='root' WHERE username='admin';")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	return nil


This can be used to build local goose binaries without having the latest Go version installed locally.

$ DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1  docker build -f Dockerfile.local --output bin .

Hybrid Versioning

Please, read the versioning problem first.

By default, if you attempt to apply missing (out-of-order) migrations goose will raise an error. However, If you want to apply these missing migrations pass goose the -allow-missing flag, or if using as a library supply the functional option goose.WithAllowMissing() to Up, UpTo or UpByOne.

However, we strongly recommend adopting a hybrid versioning approach, using both timestamps and sequential numbers. Migrations created during the development process are timestamped and sequential versions are ran on production. We believe this method will prevent the problem of conflicting versions when writing software in a team environment.

To help you adopt this approach, create will use the current timestamp as the migration version. When you're ready to deploy your migrations in a production environment, we also provide a helpful fix command to convert your migrations into sequential order, while preserving the timestamp ordering. We recommend running fix in the CI pipeline, and only when the migrations are ready for production.


Licensed under MIT License




View Source
const VERSION = "v3.2.0"

Deprecated: VERSION will no longer be supported in v4.


View Source
var (
	// ErrNoCurrentVersion when a current migration version is not found.
	ErrNoCurrentVersion = errors.New("no current version found")
	// ErrNoNextVersion when the next migration version is not found.
	ErrNoNextVersion = errors.New("no next version found")
	// MaxVersion is the maximum allowed version.
	MaxVersion int64 = 9223372036854775807 // max(int64)



func AddMigration

func AddMigration(up func(*sql.Tx) error, down func(*sql.Tx) error)

AddMigration adds a migration.

func AddNamedMigration

func AddNamedMigration(filename string, up func(*sql.Tx) error, down func(*sql.Tx) error)

AddNamedMigration : Add a named migration.

func Create

func Create(db *sql.DB, dir, name, migrationType string) error

Create writes a new blank migration file.

func CreateWithTemplate

func CreateWithTemplate(db *sql.DB, dir string, tmpl *template.Template, name, migrationType string) error

Create writes a new blank migration file.

func Down

func Down(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

Down rolls back a single migration from the current version.

func DownTo

func DownTo(db *sql.DB, dir string, version int64, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

DownTo rolls back migrations to a specific version.

func EnsureDBVersion

func EnsureDBVersion(db *sql.DB) (int64, error)

EnsureDBVersion retrieves the current version for this DB. Create and initialize the DB version table if it doesn't exist.

func Fix

func Fix(dir string) error

func GetDBVersion

func GetDBVersion(db *sql.DB) (int64, error)

GetDBVersion is an alias for EnsureDBVersion, but returns -1 in error.

func NumericComponent

func NumericComponent(name string) (int64, error)

NumericComponent looks for migration scripts with names in the form: XXX_descriptivename.ext where XXX specifies the version number and ext specifies the type of migration

func OpenDBWithDriver

func OpenDBWithDriver(driver string, dbstring string) (*sql.DB, error)

OpenDBWithDriver creates a connection to a database, and modifies goose internals to be compatible with the supplied driver by calling SetDialect.

func Redo

func Redo(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

Redo rolls back the most recently applied migration, then runs it again.

func Reset

func Reset(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

Reset rolls back all migrations

func Run

func Run(command string, db *sql.DB, dir string, args ...string) error

Run runs a goose command.

func RunWithOptions

func RunWithOptions(command string, db *sql.DB, dir string, args []string, options ...OptionsFunc) error

Run runs a goose command with options.

func SetBaseFS

func SetBaseFS(fsys fs.FS)

SetBaseFS sets a base FS to discover migrations. It can be used with 'embed' package. Calling with 'nil' argument leads to default behaviour: discovering migrations from os filesystem. Note that modifying operations like Create will use os filesystem anyway.

func SetDialect

func SetDialect(d string) error

SetDialect sets the SQLDialect

func SetLogger

func SetLogger(l Logger)

SetLogger sets the logger for package output

func SetSequential

func SetSequential(s bool)

SetSequential set whether to use sequential versioning instead of timestamp based versioning

func SetTableName

func SetTableName(n string)

SetTableName set goose db version table name

func SetVerbose

func SetVerbose(v bool)

SetVerbose set the goose verbosity mode

func Status

func Status(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

Status prints the status of all migrations.

func TableName

func TableName() string

TableName returns goose db version table name

func Up

func Up(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

Up applies all available migrations.

func UpByOne

func UpByOne(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

UpByOne migrates up by a single version.

func UpTo

func UpTo(db *sql.DB, dir string, version int64, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

UpTo migrates up to a specific version.

func Version

func Version(db *sql.DB, dir string, opts ...OptionsFunc) error

Version prints the current version of the database.


type ClickHouseDialect

type ClickHouseDialect struct{}

ClickHouseDialect struct.

type Logger

type Logger interface {
	Fatal(v ...interface{})
	Fatalf(format string, v ...interface{})
	Print(v ...interface{})
	Println(v ...interface{})
	Printf(format string, v ...interface{})

Logger is standard logger interface

type Migration

type Migration struct {
	Version    int64
	Next       int64  // next version, or -1 if none
	Previous   int64  // previous version, -1 if none
	Source     string // path to .sql script or go file
	Registered bool
	UpFn       func(*sql.Tx) error // Up go migration function
	DownFn     func(*sql.Tx) error // Down go migration function
	// contains filtered or unexported fields

Migration struct.

func (*Migration) Down

func (m *Migration) Down(db *sql.DB) error

Down runs a down migration.

func (*Migration) String

func (m *Migration) String() string

func (*Migration) Up

func (m *Migration) Up(db *sql.DB) error

Up runs an up migration.

type MigrationRecord

type MigrationRecord struct {
	VersionID int64
	TStamp    time.Time
	IsApplied bool // was this a result of up() or down()

MigrationRecord struct.

type Migrations

type Migrations []*Migration

Migrations slice.

func CollectMigrations

func CollectMigrations(dirpath string, current, target int64) (Migrations, error)

CollectMigrations returns all the valid looking migration scripts in the migrations folder and go func registry, and key them by version.

func (Migrations) Current

func (ms Migrations) Current(current int64) (*Migration, error)

Current gets the current migration.

func (Migrations) Last

func (ms Migrations) Last() (*Migration, error)

Last gets the last migration.

func (Migrations) Len

func (ms Migrations) Len() int

helpers so we can use pkg sort

func (Migrations) Less

func (ms Migrations) Less(i, j int) bool

func (Migrations) Next

func (ms Migrations) Next(current int64) (*Migration, error)

Next gets the next migration.

func (Migrations) Previous

func (ms Migrations) Previous(current int64) (*Migration, error)

Previous : Get the previous migration.

func (Migrations) String

func (ms Migrations) String() string

func (Migrations) Swap

func (ms Migrations) Swap(i, j int)

type MySQLDialect

type MySQLDialect struct{}

MySQLDialect struct.

type OptionsFunc

type OptionsFunc func(o *options)

func WithAllowMissing

func WithAllowMissing() OptionsFunc

func WithNoVersioning

func WithNoVersioning() OptionsFunc

type PostgresDialect

type PostgresDialect struct{}

PostgresDialect struct.

type RedshiftDialect

type RedshiftDialect struct{}

RedshiftDialect struct.

type SQLDialect

type SQLDialect interface {
	// contains filtered or unexported methods

SQLDialect abstracts the details of specific SQL dialects for goose's few SQL specific statements

func GetDialect

func GetDialect() SQLDialect

GetDialect gets the SQLDialect

type SqlServerDialect

type SqlServerDialect struct{}

SqlServerDialect struct.

type Sqlite3Dialect

type Sqlite3Dialect struct{}

Sqlite3Dialect struct.

type TiDBDialect

type TiDBDialect struct{}

TiDBDialect struct.


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